function oxDone() { var gads = document.createElement('script'), useSSL = 'https:' === document.location.protocol, node = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; gads.async = true; gads.type = 'text/javascript'; gads.src = (useSSL ? 'https:' : 'http:') + '//www.googletagservices.com/tag/js/gpt.js'; node.parentNode.insertBefore(gads, node); } setTimeout(function() { if (!('OX' in window || 'oxhbjs' in window)) { oxDone(); } }, 2500); (function() { var openx = document.createElement('script'), useSSL = 'https:' === document.location.protocol, node = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; openx.async = true; openx.type = 'text/javascript'; openx.src = (useSSL ? 'https:' : 'http:') + '//lovetk-d.openx.net/w/1.0/jstag?nc=1004147-LoveToKnow'; node.parentNode.insertBefore(openx, node); })(); ltk.ads = { retries: [], contentUnit: '', debug: false, refreshInterval: 25000, excludedIds: ['ad-carambola-desktop', 'ad-carambola-mobile'], slots: [], numOxSlotsDefined: 0, define: function(id, unit, size, sizes, delay) { var help = this.helpers, debug = this.debug; var sizeDef = size; googletag.cmd.push(function() { if (sizeDef.length === 0) { sizeDef = help.getMaxSizeArr(sizes); } if (sizeDef.length) { if (debug) help.title('define'); var def = googletag.defineSlot('/1004147/' + unit, sizeDef, id) .addService(googletag.pubads()); if (ltk.ads.debug) help.logDeep('define unit: ' + unit + ' for ' + id); if (help.isOxAd(id)) { ltk.ads.numOxSlotsDefined++; if (ltk.ads.numOxSlotsDefined === OX_dfp_ads.length) { OX.dfp_bidder.setOxTargeting(); } if (debug) help.logDeep('set OX target: ' + sizeDef[0] + 'x' + sizeDef[1] + ' for ' + unit); } ltk.ads.slots.push({ id: id, ad: def, visible: false, firstRefresh: true, timer: { state: 'stopped', counter: (ltk.ads.refreshInterval / 1000), isStopped: function() { return this.state === 'stopped'; }, isPaused: function() { return this.state === 'paused'; }, isActive: function() { return this.state === 'active'; }, getState: function() { return this.state; }, pause: function() { this.state = 'paused'; if (debug) help.logTimerPaused('pause timer for ' + id + ': ' + help.getSlotById(id).timer.state); }, resume: function() { this.state = 'active'; if (this.counter <= 1) this.counter++; // make sure we have a minimum impression time of 1 sec if (debug) help.logTimerPaused('resume timer for ' + id + ': ' + help.getSlotById(id).timer.state); }, startTimer: function(slot) { this.state = 'active'; // set to a property in case we need to clear it slot.timer.interval = setInterval(function() { if (!slot.timer.isPaused() && !slot.timer.isStopped() && slot.visible) { if (debug) help.logTimer('refresh ' + id + ' in ' + slot.timer.counter + ' seconds'); slot.timer.counter--; } else { if (debug) help.logTimerPaused('remain paused for ' + id); } if (slot.timer.counter < 0) { ltk.ads.refresh(slot.id); slot.timer.counter = (ltk.ads.refreshInterval / 1000); } }, 1000); } } }); googletag.display(id); // needed only for wrangling sticky ads on load if (debug) help.logDeep('pre-render the ad so sticky ads actually stick'); if (!delay) { if (debug) help.logDeep('see no delay, so request initial fetch and display of the ad'); ltk.ads.refresh(id); } } }); }, refresh: function(id) { var help = this.helpers, debug = this.debug; if (debug) { help.title('refresh'); } googletag.cmd.push(function() { var ad_slot = help.getSlotById(id), ad = ad_slot.ad; if (!ad_slot.firstRefresh && help.isAdOldEnough(ad_slot) === false) { var age = (((new Date()) - ad_slot.timer.last) / 1000); if (debug) { console.log( '%cNot refreshing ... ' + ad_slot.id + ' is only ' + age + ' seconds old', 'background:red;color:white;' ); } return; } if (!ad_slot.firstRefresh && !ad_slot.visible) return; // we won't refresh unless we're visible to google if (help.isOxAd(ad_slot)) { if (debug) help.log('refresh the OX DFP ad for ' + id); OX.dfp_bidder.refresh(function() { OX.dfp_bidder.setOxTargeting([ad]); googletag.pubads().refresh([ad]); }); } else { if (debug) help.log('refresh the non-OX ad ' + id); googletag.pubads().refresh([ad]); } }); }, listen: function(name, handler) { googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.pubads().addEventListener(name, handler); }); }, handleImpressionViewable: function(event) { var help = ltk.ads.helpers, debug = ltk.ads.debug; var id = event.slot.getSlotElementId(), slot = help.getSlotById(id); if (debug) { help.title('impressionViewable'); help.logDeep('see event triggered for ' + id); } slot.visible = true; if (slot.timer.isStopped()) { if (debug) help.logDeep('am starting the timer'); slot.timer.startTimer(); return; } if (slot.timer.isPaused()) { if (debug) help.logDeep('am resuming the timer'); slot.timer.resume(); } }, handleSlotRenderEnded: function(event) { var help = ltk.ads.helpers, debug = ltk.ads.debug; if (debug) { help.title('slotRenderEnded'); help.logDeep('see event triggered for ' + event.slot.getSlotElementId()); } var slot = help.getSlotById(event.slot.getSlotElementId()); if (slot.firstRefresh === true) slot.firstRefresh = false; slot.timer.last = new Date(); if (slot.visible && slot.timer.isStopped()) { if (debug) help.logDeep('am starting the timer'); slot.timer.startTimer(); return; } if (slot.visible && slot.timer.isPaused()) { if (debug) help.logDeep('am resuming the timer'); slot.timer.resume(); } }, handleSlotVisibilityChanged: function(event) { var help = ltk.ads.helpers, debug = ltk.ads.debug; var id = event.slot.getSlotElementId(), perc = event.inViewPercentage, slot = help.getSlotById(id), wasVisible = slot.visible; if (!help.isValidAd(slot)) return; if (debug) { help.title('slotVisiblityChanged'); help.logDeep('see that slotVisibilityChanged was triggered for ' + id); } slot.visible = perc < 50 ? false : true; // same criteria as 'impressionViewable' event var changedOn = !wasVisible && slot.visible, changedOff = wasVisible && !slot.visible; if (debug) { help.logDeep('see that ad was ' + (wasVisible ? 'visible ' : 'not visible ') + 'and is now ' + (slot.visible ? 'visible' : 'not visible')); help.logDeep('see that ' + id + ' has timer as: ' + slot.timer.getState()); } if (changedOn && slot.timer.isStopped()) { if (debug) help.logDeep('am starting the timer'); slot.timer.startTimer(slot); return; } if (changedOn && slot.timer.isPaused()) { if (debug) help.logDeep('am resuming the timer'); slot.timer.resume(); return; } if (changedOff && slot.timer.isActive()) { if (debug) help.logDeep('am pausing the timer'); slot.timer.pause(); } }, helpers: { getMaxSizeArr: function(arr) { var len = arr.length, i = len - 1, retArr = []; for (; i >= 0; i--) { var minVpSize = arr[i][0], minVpWidth = minVpSize[0], minVpHeight = minVpSize[1], allowedAdSizes = arr[i][1]; if (window.innerWidth >= minVpWidth && window.innerHeight >= minVpHeight) { retArr = allowedAdSizes; break; } } return retArr; }, getSlotById: function(id) { for (var i = 0; i < ltk.ads.slots.length; i++) { if (ltk.ads.slots[i].id === id) return ltk.ads.slots[i]; } }, isOxAd: function(ad_slot) { for (var i = 0; i < OX_dfp_ads.length; i++) { if (OX_dfp_ads[i][2] === ad_slot.id) return true; } return false; }, isValidAd: function(ad_slot) { for (var i = 0; i < ltk.ads.excludedIds.length; i++) { if (ad_slot.id === ltk.ads.excludedIds[i]) return false; } return true; }, isAdOldEnough: function(ad_slot) { var timeSpan = Math.ceil(((new Date()) - ad_slot.timer.last) / 1000); var min = Math.ceil(ltk.ads.refreshInterval / 1000); if (timeSpan >= min) { if (ltk.ads.debug) { ltk.ads.helpers.log( 'see that ' + ad_slot.id + ' was refreshed ' + timeSpan + ' seconds ago' ); } return true; } return false; }, title: function(str) { console.log( '%c' + ltk.ads.helpers.getTime() + ' ' + str, 'background:black;color:white;font-weight:bold' ); }, titleDeep: function(str) { console.log( '%c' + ltk.ads.helpers.getTime() + ' ' + str, 'background:black;color:white;font-weight:bold' ); }, log: function(str) { console.log( '%c' + ltk.ads.helpers.getTime() + ' I: ' + '%c' + str, 'background:black;color:orchid;font-weight:bold', 'background:black;color:limegreen;font-weight:bold' ); }, logDeep: function(str) { console.log( '%c' + ltk.ads.helpers.getTime() + ' I: ' + '%c' + str, 'background:black;color:orchid;font-weight:bold', 'background:black;color:limegreen;font-weight:bold' ); }, logTimer: function(str) { console.log('%cI will ' + str, 'background:orange;color:red'); }, logTimerPaused: function(str) { console.log('%cI ' + str, 'background:green;color:white;font-weight:bold'); }, getTime: function() { var d = new Date(), h = d.getHours() + '', m = d.getMinutes() + '', s = d.getSeconds() + ''; h = h.length < 2 ? ('0' + h) : h; m = m.length < 2 ? ('0' + m) : m; s = s.length < 2 ? ('0' + s) : s; return h + ':' + m + ':' + s; } } } googletag.cmd.push(function() { var pubads = googletag.pubads(); pubads.set('page_url', location.href); pubads.collapseEmptyDivs(); pubads.enableSingleRequest(); pubads.disableInitialLoad(); googletag.enableServices(); }); if (ltk.type !== 'Slideshow') { ltk.ads.listen('impressionViewable', ltk.ads.handleImpressionViewable); ltk.ads.listen('slotVisibilityChanged', ltk.ads.handleSlotVisibilityChanged); } ltk.ads.listen('slotRenderEnded', ltk.ads.handleSlotRenderEnded); Japanese Business Culture [Slideshow]

Japanese Business Culture

Jodee Redmond
Japanese Business Meeting

Japanese Business Culture

Understanding Japanese business culture is essential for companies that want to successfully tap into this market. Professional interactions are heavily influenced by this society's values and respecting them is a key component to a successful business relationship.

Trust on a Hand

Relationships Come First

In Japan, developing a personal relationship with a prospect comes first. Only after people get to know and trust each other does the discussion turn to business matters. In Western culture, developing a good relationship is part of doing business, but a decision about whether to enter into a professional relationship is made more quickly.

Senior Japanese Businessman

Age Is Revered

Older people are considered wise in Japanese culture, and younger people defer to a more senior member of a group. A meeting which includes one or more senior executives has a better chance of eventually leading to an agreement or a sale.

Stopwatch in hand

Consensus Is Needed to Make a Decision

The pace of business in Japan will likely seem slow to a Westerner. Decisions are reached as a group and there must be a consensus before proceeding.

Blue Eyed Man Facing Camera

Eye Contact Considered Rude

In Western business culture, looking someone straight in the eye is considered a desirable trait. In Japanese business culture, this same gesture is seen as hostile and holding another person's gaze should be avoided.

Man Holding Gift

Gifts Part of Conducting Business

In Japan, giving gifts is an expected part of conducting business. A small, wrapped gift should be presented to key contacts as part of the process of developing business relationships. Western businesspeople are encouraged to do favors for people they encounter, since a business favor will always be returned.

Business Celebration

Keep Interactions Low Key

This culture appreciates people who conduct themselves in a humble and modest manner. The Western way of promoting oneself and drawing attention to accomplishments is considered childish and embarassing.

Business Suit and Tie

Dressing Well Is Important

Dressing neatly and conservatively is important when doing business in Japan, since a person will be judged on his or her attire. A suit and tie are appropriate for men. Female executives do not wear slacks for work; a skirt or dress with a jacket should be worn instead.

Business Cards in Japanese Business Culture

Business cards are an integral part of doing business in Japan. They are exchanged before the start of a meeting. The recipient holds the card with both hands and reads it out loud before placing it on the table or in a cardholder so it can be referred to during the meeting. Placing a business card into one's pocket immediately is considered disrespectful.

People who conduct themselves in an ethical and respectul manner and who appreciate the Japanese corporate culture will be able to establish mutually-beneficial relationships with companies in that country.

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Japanese Business Culture