function oxDone() { var gads = document.createElement('script'), useSSL = 'https:' === document.location.protocol, node = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; gads.async = true; gads.type = 'text/javascript'; gads.src = (useSSL ? 'https:' : 'http:') + '//www.googletagservices.com/tag/js/gpt.js'; node.parentNode.insertBefore(gads, node); } setTimeout(function() { if (!('OX' in window || 'oxhbjs' in window)) { oxDone(); } }, 2500); (function() { var openx = document.createElement('script'), useSSL = 'https:' === document.location.protocol, node = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; openx.async = true; openx.type = 'text/javascript'; openx.src = (useSSL ? 'https:' : 'http:') + '//lovetk-d.openx.net/w/1.0/jstag?nc=1004147-LoveToKnow'; node.parentNode.insertBefore(openx, node); })(); ltk.ads = { retries: [], contentUnit: '', debug: false, refreshInterval: 25000, excludedIds: ['ad-carambola-desktop', 'ad-carambola-mobile'], slots: [], numOxSlotsDefined: 0, define: function(id, unit, size, sizes, delay) { var help = this.helpers, debug = this.debug; var sizeDef = size; googletag.cmd.push(function() { if (sizeDef.length === 0) { sizeDef = help.getMaxSizeArr(sizes); } if (sizeDef.length) { if (debug) help.title('define'); var def = googletag.defineSlot('/1004147/' + unit, sizeDef, id) .addService(googletag.pubads()); if (ltk.ads.debug) help.logDeep('define unit: ' + unit + ' for ' + id); if (help.isOxAd(id)) { ltk.ads.numOxSlotsDefined++; if (ltk.ads.numOxSlotsDefined === OX_dfp_ads.length) { OX.dfp_bidder.setOxTargeting(); } if (debug) help.logDeep('set OX target: ' + sizeDef[0] + 'x' + sizeDef[1] + ' for ' + unit); } ltk.ads.slots.push({ id: id, ad: def, visible: false, firstRefresh: true, timer: { state: 'stopped', counter: (ltk.ads.refreshInterval / 1000), isStopped: function() { return this.state === 'stopped'; }, isPaused: function() { return this.state === 'paused'; }, isActive: function() { return this.state === 'active'; }, getState: function() { return this.state; }, pause: function() { this.state = 'paused'; if (debug) help.logTimerPaused('pause timer for ' + id + ': ' + help.getSlotById(id).timer.state); }, resume: function() { this.state = 'active'; if (this.counter <= 1) this.counter++; // make sure we have a minimum impression time of 1 sec if (debug) help.logTimerPaused('resume timer for ' + id + ': ' + help.getSlotById(id).timer.state); }, startTimer: function(slot) { this.state = 'active'; // set to a property in case we need to clear it slot.timer.interval = setInterval(function() { if (!slot.timer.isPaused() && !slot.timer.isStopped() && slot.visible) { if (debug) help.logTimer('refresh ' + id + ' in ' + slot.timer.counter + ' seconds'); slot.timer.counter--; } else { if (debug) help.logTimerPaused('remain paused for ' + id); } if (slot.timer.counter < 0) { ltk.ads.refresh(slot.id); slot.timer.counter = (ltk.ads.refreshInterval / 1000); } }, 1000); } } }); googletag.display(id); // needed only for wrangling sticky ads on load if (debug) help.logDeep('pre-render the ad so sticky ads actually stick'); if (!delay) { if (debug) help.logDeep('see no delay, so request initial fetch and display of the ad'); ltk.ads.refresh(id); } } }); }, refresh: function(id) { var help = this.helpers, debug = this.debug; if (debug) { help.title('refresh'); } googletag.cmd.push(function() { var ad_slot = help.getSlotById(id), ad = ad_slot.ad; if (!ad_slot.firstRefresh && help.isAdOldEnough(ad_slot) === false) { var age = (((new Date()) - ad_slot.timer.last) / 1000); if (debug) { console.log( '%cNot refreshing ... ' + ad_slot.id + ' is only ' + age + ' seconds old', 'background:red;color:white;' ); } return; } if (!ad_slot.firstRefresh && !ad_slot.visible) return; // we won't refresh unless we're visible to google if (help.isOxAd(ad_slot)) { if (debug) help.log('refresh the OX DFP ad for ' + id); OX.dfp_bidder.refresh(function() { OX.dfp_bidder.setOxTargeting([ad]); googletag.pubads().refresh([ad]); }); } else { if (debug) help.log('refresh the non-OX ad ' + id); googletag.pubads().refresh([ad]); } }); }, listen: function(name, handler) { googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.pubads().addEventListener(name, handler); }); }, handleImpressionViewable: function(event) { var help = ltk.ads.helpers, debug = ltk.ads.debug; var id = event.slot.getSlotElementId(), slot = help.getSlotById(id); if (debug) { help.title('impressionViewable'); help.logDeep('see event triggered for ' + id); } slot.visible = true; if (slot.timer.isStopped()) { if (debug) help.logDeep('am starting the timer'); slot.timer.startTimer(); return; } if (slot.timer.isPaused()) { if (debug) help.logDeep('am resuming the timer'); slot.timer.resume(); } }, handleSlotRenderEnded: function(event) { var help = ltk.ads.helpers, debug = ltk.ads.debug; if (debug) { help.title('slotRenderEnded'); help.logDeep('see event triggered for ' + event.slot.getSlotElementId()); } var slot = help.getSlotById(event.slot.getSlotElementId()); if (slot.firstRefresh === true) slot.firstRefresh = false; slot.timer.last = new Date(); if (slot.visible && slot.timer.isStopped()) { if (debug) help.logDeep('am starting the timer'); slot.timer.startTimer(); return; } if (slot.visible && slot.timer.isPaused()) { if (debug) help.logDeep('am resuming the timer'); slot.timer.resume(); } }, handleSlotVisibilityChanged: function(event) { var help = ltk.ads.helpers, debug = ltk.ads.debug; var id = event.slot.getSlotElementId(), perc = event.inViewPercentage, slot = help.getSlotById(id), wasVisible = slot.visible; if (!help.isValidAd(slot)) return; if (debug) { help.title('slotVisiblityChanged'); help.logDeep('see that slotVisibilityChanged was triggered for ' + id); } slot.visible = perc < 50 ? false : true; // same criteria as 'impressionViewable' event var changedOn = !wasVisible && slot.visible, changedOff = wasVisible && !slot.visible; if (debug) { help.logDeep('see that ad was ' + (wasVisible ? 'visible ' : 'not visible ') + 'and is now ' + (slot.visible ? 'visible' : 'not visible')); help.logDeep('see that ' + id + ' has timer as: ' + slot.timer.getState()); } if (changedOn && slot.timer.isStopped()) { if (debug) help.logDeep('am starting the timer'); slot.timer.startTimer(slot); return; } if (changedOn && slot.timer.isPaused()) { if (debug) help.logDeep('am resuming the timer'); slot.timer.resume(); return; } if (changedOff && slot.timer.isActive()) { if (debug) help.logDeep('am pausing the timer'); slot.timer.pause(); } }, helpers: { getMaxSizeArr: function(arr) { var len = arr.length, i = len - 1, retArr = []; for (; i >= 0; i--) { var minVpSize = arr[i][0], minVpWidth = minVpSize[0], minVpHeight = minVpSize[1], allowedAdSizes = arr[i][1]; if (window.innerWidth >= minVpWidth && window.innerHeight >= minVpHeight) { retArr = allowedAdSizes; break; } } return retArr; }, getSlotById: function(id) { for (var i = 0; i < ltk.ads.slots.length; i++) { if (ltk.ads.slots[i].id === id) return ltk.ads.slots[i]; } }, isOxAd: function(ad_slot) { for (var i = 0; i < OX_dfp_ads.length; i++) { if (OX_dfp_ads[i][2] === ad_slot.id) return true; } return false; }, isValidAd: function(ad_slot) { for (var i = 0; i < ltk.ads.excludedIds.length; i++) { if (ad_slot.id === ltk.ads.excludedIds[i]) return false; } return true; }, isAdOldEnough: function(ad_slot) { var timeSpan = Math.ceil(((new Date()) - ad_slot.timer.last) / 1000); var min = Math.ceil(ltk.ads.refreshInterval / 1000); if (timeSpan >= min) { if (ltk.ads.debug) { ltk.ads.helpers.log( 'see that ' + ad_slot.id + ' was refreshed ' + timeSpan + ' seconds ago' ); } return true; } return false; }, title: function(str) { console.log( '%c' + ltk.ads.helpers.getTime() + ' ' + str, 'background:black;color:white;font-weight:bold' ); }, titleDeep: function(str) { console.log( '%c' + ltk.ads.helpers.getTime() + ' ' + str, 'background:black;color:white;font-weight:bold' ); }, log: function(str) { console.log( '%c' + ltk.ads.helpers.getTime() + ' I: ' + '%c' + str, 'background:black;color:orchid;font-weight:bold', 'background:black;color:limegreen;font-weight:bold' ); }, logDeep: function(str) { console.log( '%c' + ltk.ads.helpers.getTime() + ' I: ' + '%c' + str, 'background:black;color:orchid;font-weight:bold', 'background:black;color:limegreen;font-weight:bold' ); }, logTimer: function(str) { console.log('%cI will ' + str, 'background:orange;color:red'); }, logTimerPaused: function(str) { console.log('%cI ' + str, 'background:green;color:white;font-weight:bold'); }, getTime: function() { var d = new Date(), h = d.getHours() + '', m = d.getMinutes() + '', s = d.getSeconds() + ''; h = h.length < 2 ? ('0' + h) : h; m = m.length < 2 ? ('0' + m) : m; s = s.length < 2 ? ('0' + s) : s; return h + ':' + m + ':' + s; } } } googletag.cmd.push(function() { var pubads = googletag.pubads(); pubads.set('page_url', location.href); pubads.collapseEmptyDivs(); pubads.enableSingleRequest(); pubads.disableInitialLoad(); googletag.enableServices(); }); if (ltk.type !== 'Slideshow') { ltk.ads.listen('impressionViewable', ltk.ads.handleImpressionViewable); ltk.ads.listen('slotVisibilityChanged', ltk.ads.handleSlotVisibilityChanged); } ltk.ads.listen('slotRenderEnded', ltk.ads.handleSlotRenderEnded); Memo Layout [Slideshow]

Memo Layout

Memo Layout for Business

Knowing the correct memo layout will help you to compose one properly. Although you may think that memos are a thing of the past and that email has replaced memo communications, it's still an important business communication tool.

Why Write a Memo

The memo is used to relay information to people within an organization. To communicate with people outside of the company, a letter is used.

Memo Heading

The heading of the memo contains important information. This part of the memo layout set out who the memo is being sent to, the sender's name, the date and the subject.

Opening Paragraph

The first part of the body of the memo explains why it's being written. A memo is usually written to deal with a problem. The opening paragraph explains what the issue is.

Background Information

The next paragraph provides some background information about the problem. Keep it simple and clear for the reader.

Add Supporting Facts

Once you have covered the background information in your memo, the next focus needs to be on providing supporting facts and information. This part of the memo may also contain research, if appropriate.

After the problem has been explained and some background information has been provided, the focus of the memo changes. The next paragraph sets out the action the writer is asking the reader to take.

Write a Memo Successfully

Memos are a staple of business communication. To learn more about them, check out these informative articles from LoveToKnow Business:

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Memo Layout